Created 4 years ago
Maintained by wwoods
RETIRED REPOSITORY – Tools & documentation for counting DNF users via "countme" requests  |  https://github.com/fedora-infra/mirrors-countme
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Parse http access_log data, find DNF countme requests, and output structured data that lets us estimate the number of people using various Fedora releases.

See Changes/DNF Better Counting for more info about the countme feature in general.

How it works

The short version:

  • Starting in Fedora 32, DNF adds "countme=N" to one random HTTP request per week for each repo that has its countme setting enabled.
  • parse-access-log.py parses logs from mirrors.fedoraproject.org, finds those requests, and yields the following information:
    • request timestamp, repo & arch
    • client OS name, version, variant, and arch
    • client "age", from 1-4: 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, or >6 months.
  • We use that data to make cool charts & graphs and estimate how many Fedora users there are and what they're using.

Technical details

Client behavior & configuration

DNF 4.2.9 added the countme option, which dnf.conf(5) describes like so:

Determines whether a special flag should be added to a single, randomly chosen metalink/mirrorlist query each week. This allows the repository owner to estimate the number of systems consuming it, by counting such queries over a week's time, which is much more accurate than just counting unique IP addresses (which is subject to both overcounting and undercounting due to short DHCP leases and NAT, respectively).

The flag is a simple "countme=N" parameter appended to the metalink and mirrorlist URL, where N is an integer representing the "longevity" bucket this system belongs to. The following 4 buckets are defined, based on how many full weeks have passed since the beginning of the week when this system was installed: 1 = first week, 2 = first month (2-4 weeks), 3 = six months (5-24 weeks) and 4 = more than six months (> 24 weeks). This information is meant to help distinguish short-lived installs from long-term ones, and to gather other statistics about system lifecycle.

Note that the default is False, because we don't want to enable this for every repo you have configured.

Starting with Fedora 32, we set countme=1 in Fedora official repo configs:

name=Fedora $releasever - $basearch - Updates

This means that the default configuration only adds "countme=N" when using official Fedora repos, which are all done via HTTPS connections to mirrors.fedoraproject.org. "countme=N" does not get added in subsequent requests to the chosen mirror(s).

Privacy, randomization, and user counting

DNF makes a serious effort to keep the countme data anonymous and accurate by only sending countme with one random request to each enabled repo per week. So how does it decide when the week starts, and how does it choose which request?

First, all clients use the same "week": Week 0 started at timestamp 345600 (Mon 05 Jan 1970 00:00:00 - the first Monday of POSIX time), and weeks are exactly 604800 (7×24×60×60) seconds long.

Second, all clients have the same random chance - currently 1:4 - to send countme with any request in a given week. Once it's been sent, the client won't send another countme for that repo for the rest of the week.

The default update interval for the updates repo is 6 hours, which means that clients who use dnf-makecache.service will probably send countme sometime in the first 24 hours of a given week - and nothing for the rest of the week.

This means that daily totals of users are unreliably variable, since the start of the week will have more countme requests than the end of the week. But the weekly totals should be a consistent, representative sample of the total population.

For more details on how libdnf handles the randomization, see libdnf/repo/Repo.cpp:addCountmeFlag().

Data collected

The only data we look at is in the HTTP request itself. Our log lines are in the standard Combined Log Format, like so<sup id="fnref-IPvBeefy">1</sup>: - - [29/Mar/2020:16:04:28 +0000] "GET /metalink?repo=fedora-modular-32&arch=x86_64&countme=1 HTTP/2.0" 200 18336 "-" "libdnf (Fedora 32; workstation; Linux.x86_64)"

We only look at log lines where the request is "GET", the query string includes "countme=N", the result is 200 or 302, and the User-Agent string matches the libdnf User-Agent header.

The only data we use are the timestamp, the query parameters (repo, arch, countme), and the libdnf User-Agent data.

libdnf User-Agent data

As in the log line above, the User-Agent header that libdnf sends looks like this:

User-Agent: libdnf (Fedora 32; workstation; Linux.x86_64)

This string is assembled in libdnf/utils/os-release.cpp:getUserAgent() and the format is as follows:

{product} ({os_name} {os_version}; {os_variant}; {os_canon}.{os_arch})

where the values are:

/etc/os-release NAME
/etc/os-release VERSION_ID
/etc/os-release VARIANT_ID
rpm %_os (via libdnf getCanonOS())
rpm %_arch (via libdnf getBaseArch())

(Older versions of libdnf sent libdnf/{LIBDNF_VERSION} for the product, but the version string was dropped in libdnf 0.37.2 due to privacy concerns; see libdnf commit d8d0984.)

repo=, arch=, countme=

The repo= and arch= values are exactly what's set in the URL in the .repo file.

repo is whatever string appears after repo= in the repo's metalink URL. The values that are accepted for repo are determined by mirrormanager; see mirrormanager2/lib/repomap.py for some of the gnarly details there.

arch is usually set as arch=$basearch, which means that os_arch and repo_arch are usually the same value. But it is valid for a client to use a repo with an arch= that's different from rpm's %_arch - for example, an i686 system could use an i386 repo - so repo_arch and os_arch may be different values.

countme, as discussed in dnf.conf(5), is a value from 1 to 4 indicating the "age" of the system, counted in full weeks since the system was first installed. The values are:

  1. One week or less (0-1 weeks)
  2. Up to one month (2-4 weeks)
  3. Up to six months (5-24 weeks)
  4. More than six months (25+ weeks)

These are defined in [libdnf/repo/Repo.cpp:COUNTME_BUCKETS].

OK but how do we actually use it in Fedora?

Because the raw log data contains IP and timestamps that could be used to track or identify users, we run the parsing and counting inside private parts of the Fedora infrastructure and only publish the anonymous aggregate data.

In practice, this is a three-part process:

  1. Run countme-update-rawdb.sh daily to parse log data into rawdb * rawdb is a SQLite database of structured data for each countme hit * Kept private since it contains IP addresses and timestamps * Typical log data: ~6GB/day * Typical parsing time: ~5min (Intel Core i7-6770HQ, 2.60GHz) * Typical rawdb size: ~8MB/day for F32; I'd guess keeping 1 year of data for 3 concurrent releases would take about 10GB. * Retaining historical data lets us quickly recalculate counts if we discover significant errors due to misconfigured/malicious clients
  2. Run countme-update-totals.sh to read rawdb and update totalsdb * Counts up hits for each week, grouped by:
    • System info: os_name, os_version, os_variant, os_arch, sys_age
    • Repo requested: repo_tag, repo_arch
    • Only generates data for weeks where we have complete log data
    • No timestamps or IP addresses
    • Typical parsing time: small, <=~5s
    • Typical totalsdb size: ~55KB/week (~700 rows/week) for F32
    • After update, (re)generate totals.csv
  3. Publish updated totals.db and totals.csv * See https://data-analysis.fedoraproject.org/csv-reports/countme/ * Might end up in different places/forms in the future

  1. Don't worry, is a fake IP address. Actually, it's the 4-byte UTF-8 encoding for 🌭, U+1F32D HOT DOG.