openresty/luajit2 - OpenResty's maintained branch of LuaJIT.

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This is the official OpenResty branch of LuaJIT. It is not to be considered a fork, since we still regularly synchronize changes from the upstream LuaJIT project (

OpenResty extensions

Additionally to synchronizing upstream changes, we introduce our own changes which haven't been merged yet (or never will be). This document describes those changes that are specific to this branch.

New Lua APIs


syntax: res = isempty(tab)

Returns true when the given Lua table contains neither non-nil array elements nor non-nil key-value pairs, or false otherwise.

This API can be JIT compiled.


local isempty = require "table.isempty"

print(isempty({}))  -- true
print(isempty({nil, dog = nil}))  -- true
print(isempty({"a", "b"}))  -- false
print(isempty({nil, 3}))  -- false
print(isempty({cat = 3}))  -- false

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syntax: res = isarray(tab)

Returns true when the given Lua table is a pure array-like Lua table, or false otherwise.

Empty Lua tables are treated as arrays.

This API can be JIT compiled.


local isarray = require "table.isarray"

print(isarray{"a", true, 3.14})  -- true
print(isarray{dog = 3})  -- false
print(isarray{})  -- true

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syntax: n = nkeys(tab)

Returns the total number of elements in a given Lua table (i.e. from both the array and hash parts combined).

This API can be JIT compiled.


local nkeys = require "table.nkeys"

print(nkeys({}))  -- 0
print(nkeys({ "a", nil, "b" }))  -- 2
print(nkeys({ dog = 3, cat = 4, bird = nil }))  -- 2
print(nkeys({ "a", dog = 3, cat = 4 }))  -- 3

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syntax: t = clone(tab)

Returns a shallow copy of the given Lua table.

This API can be JIT compiled.


local clone = require "table.clone"

local x = {x=12, y={5, 6, 7}}
local y = clone(x)
... use y ...

Note: We observe 7% over-all speedup in the edgelang-fan compiler's compiling speed whose Lua is generated by the fanlang compiler.

Note bis: Deep cloning is planned to be supported by adding true as a second argument.

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syntax: state = jit.prngstate(state?)

Returns (and optionally sets) the current PRNG state (an array of 8 Lua numbers with 32-bit integer values) currently used by the JIT compiler.

When the state argument is non-nil, it is expected to be an array of up to 8 unsigned Lua numbers, each with value less than 2**32-1. This will set the current PRNG state and return the state that was overridden.

Note: For backward compatibility, state argument can also be an unsigned Lua number less than 2**32-1.

Note: When the state argument is an array and less than 8 numbers, or the state is a number, the remaining positions are filled with zeros.


local state = jit.prngstate()
local oldstate = jit.prngstate{ a, b, c, ... }

jit.prngstate(32) -- {32, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}
jit.prngstate{432, 23, 50} -- {432, 23, 50, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}

Note: This API has no effect if LuaJIT is compiled with -DLUAJIT_DISABLE_JIT, and will return a table with all 0.

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syntax: exdata = th_exdata(data?)

This API allows for embedding user data into a thread (lua_State).

The retrieved exdata value on the Lua land is represented as a cdata object of the ctype void*.

As of this version, retrieving the exdata (i.e. th_exdata() without any argument) can be JIT compiled.


local th_exdata = require "thread.exdata"

th_exdata(0xdeadbeefLL)  -- set the exdata of the current Lua thread
local exdata = th_exdata()  -- fetch the exdata of the current Lua thread

Also available are the following public C API functions for manipulating exdata on the C land:

void lua_setexdata(lua_State *L, void *exdata);
void *lua_getexdata(lua_State *L);

The exdata pointer is initialized to NULL when the main thread is created. Any child Lua thread will inherit its parent's exdata, but still can override it.

Note: This API will not be available if LuaJIT is compiled with -DLUAJIT_DISABLE_FFI.

Note bis: This API is used internally by the OpenResty core, and it is strongly discouraged to use it yourself in the context of OpenResty.

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syntax: exdata = th_exdata2(data?)

Similar to thread.exdata but for a 2nd separate user data as a pointer value.

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void lua_setexdata(lua_State *L, void *exdata);

Sets extra user data as a pointer value to the current Lua state or thread.

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void *lua_getexdata(lua_State *L);

Gets extra user data as a pointer value to the current Lua state or thread.

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void lua_setexdata2(lua_State *L, void *exdata2);

Similar to lua_setexdata but for a 2nd user data (pointer) value.

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void *lua_getexdata2(lua_State *L);

Similar to lua_getexdata but for a 2nd user data (pointer) value.

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void lua_resetthread(lua_State *L, lua_State *th);

Resets the state of th to the initial state of a newly created Lua thread object as returned by lua_newthread(). This is mainly for Lua thread recycling. Lua threads in arbitrary states (like yielded or errored) can be reset properly.

The current implementation does not shrink the already allocated Lua stack though. It only clears it.

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New macros

The macros described in this section have been added to this branch.

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In the luajit.h header file, a new macro OPENRESTY_LUAJIT was defined to help distinguishing this OpenResty-specific branch of LuaJIT.


This macro is set when the lua_resetthread C API is present.

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Updated JIT default parameters

We use more appressive default JIT compiler options to help large OpenResty Lua applications.

The following jit.opt options are used by default:

maxmcode=40960  -- in KB

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String hashing

This optimization only applies to Intel CPUs supporting the SSE 4.2 instruction sets. For such CPUs, and when this branch is compiled with -msse4.2, the string hashing function used for strings interning will be based on an optimized crc32 implementation (see lj_str_new()).

This optimization still provides constant-time hashing complexity (O(n)), but makes hash collision attacks harder for strings up to 127 bytes of size.

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Updated bytecode options

New -bL option

The bytecode option L was added to display Lua sources line numbers.

For example, luajit -bL -e 'print(1)' now produces bytecode dumps like below:

-- BYTECODE -- "print(1)":0-1
0001     [1]    GGET     0   0      ; "print"
0002     [1]    KSHORT   1   1
0003     [1]    CALL     0   1   2
0004     [1]    RET0     0   1

The [N] column corresponds to the Lua source line number. For example, [1] means "the first source line".

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Updated -bl option

The bytecode option l was updated to display the constant tables of each Lua prototype.

For example, luajit -bl a.lua' now produces bytecode dumps like below:

-- BYTECODE -- a.lua:0-48
KGC    0    "print"
KGC    1    "hi"
KGC    2    table
KGC    3    a.lua:17
KN    1    1000000
KN    2    1.390671161567e-309

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  • Increased the maximum number of allowed upvalues from 60 to 120.
  • Various important bugfixes in the JIT compiler and Lua VM which have not been merged in upstream LuaJIT.
  • Removed the GCC 4 requirement for x86 on older systems such as Solaris i386.
  • In the Makefile file, make sure we always install the symlink for "luajit" even for alpha or beta versions.
  • Applied a patch to fix DragonFlyBSD compatibility. Note: this is not an officially supported target.
  • feature: jit.dump: output Lua source location after every BC.
  • feature: added internal memory-buffer-based trace entry/exit/start-recording event logging, mainly for debugging bugs in the JIT compiler. it requires -DLUA_USE_TRACE_LOGS when building LuaJIT.
  • feature: save g->jit_base to g->saved_jit_base before lj_err_throw clears g->jit_base which makes it impossible to get Lua backtrace in such states.

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Copyright & License

LuaJIT is a Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler for the Lua programming language.

Project Homepage:

LuaJIT is Copyright (C) 2005-2019 Mike Pall.

Additional patches for OpenResty are copyrighted by Yichun Zhang and OpenResty Inc.:

Copyright (C) 2017-2019 Yichun Zhang. All rights reserved.

Copyright (C) 2017-2019 OpenResty Inc. All rights reserved.

LuaJIT is free software, released under the MIT license. See full Copyright Notice in the COPYRIGHT file or in luajit.h.

Documentation for the official LuaJIT is available in HTML format. Please point your favorite browser to:


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